TABLE 2.

Real Civil Penalties 1978–2014 (1 = US$100,000 measured in 2007 dollars).

ManufacturersImported fleetDomestic fleet
BMW3,101.20.0
Mercedes Benz3,025.40.0
Daimler–Chryslera1,165.90.0
Volvo901.20.0
Jaguar684.70.0
Porsche661.00.0
Daimler203.40.0
Fiat187.40.0
Sterling69.70.0
Ferrari Maserati53.50.0
Peugeot46.30.0
Maserati40.20.0
Ferrari27.80.0
Small Luxury Manufacturersb2.55.2
Chryslera0.90.0
Ford0.00.0
General Motors0.00.0
Fleet share of total fines99.95%0.05%

Notes: Fines are expressed in real values based on the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1982–1984 dollars). (a) Chrysler merged with Daimler from 1998–2007, forming Daimler–Chrysler during that period. (b) Includes PAS, Lotus, Saleen, Panoz, Vector, Aston Martin, Spyker, Callaway, Consulier, and Sun International.

Sources: CAFE Public Information Center, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.