EPA 2017–2025 costs and benefits, 3% discount rate ($2007 millions).

MY 2017MY 2025Sum 2017–2025
Private costs and benefits (costs shown as negative benefit)
Pretax fuel savings6,694101,734451,624
Increase in consumer surplus due to the rebound effect95112,93159,424
Reduced refueling time2604,06917,780
 Net private benefits5,27086,788386,210
Social costs and benefits (costs shown as negative benefit)
Accidents, congestion and noise−521−6,694−30,710
Oil market externalities3475,46723,960
GHG reductions61010,26944,307
Conventional air pollutants701,1505,191
 Net social benefits50710,19242,747
Net total benefits5,78196,980428,805

Source: EPA, Final Rulemaking for 2017–2025, 7-27 to 7-29.