EPA 2012-16 aggregate costs and benefits, 3% discount rate ($2007 million).

MY 2012MY 2013MY 2014MY 2015MY 2016Sum 2012-16
Average emissions (CO2 g/mile)288281275263250n/a
Private costs and benefits (costs shows as negative benefit)
Technology costs−4,900−8,000−10,300−12,700−15,600−51,500
Pretax fuel savings16,10023,90032,20046,00063,500181,800
Value of additional driving2,4003,4004,4006,0007,90024,000
Reduced refueling time1,1001,6002,1003,0004,00011,900
 Net private benefits14,70020,90028,40042,30059,800166,200
Social costs and benefits (costs shown as negative benefit)
Noise, accidents, and congestion−1,100−1,600−2,100−2,900−3,900−11,600
Oil market externalities*9001,4001,8002,5003,50010,100
Conventional air pollutants7009001,3001,8002,4007,000
 Net social benefits2,2003,1004,1005,8007,90022,500
Net total benefits16,90024,00032,50048,10067,700188,700

Note: *Due to a calculation error in the rule, these benefits were roughly half of what they should have been.

Source: Final Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, 2-4, 8-26 to 8-28, Table 2-1, Table 8-14 and Table 8-16.