Passenger car social costs caused by the rebound effect (millions US$2007), 3% discount rate.

MY 2012MY 2013MY 2014MY 2015MY 2016Total: 2012–2016
Passengers cars
VMT Increase (billion miles)6.813.919.525.430.896.4
Congestion costs2926038491,1061,3444,194
Accident costs1332683794925951,868
Noise costs61116212579
Combined passenger cars and trucks
Congestion costs4479021,2821,6342,0006,264
Accident costs2174306147789502,989
Noise costs917253239122

Source: Final Regulatory Impact Analysis: Corporate Average Fuel Economy for MY 2012-MY 2016 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks, 14 & 405–410.