TABLE 11.

Summary of DOT’s 2017-25 rule, using a 3% discount rate and 2010 fleet.

MY 2017MY 2025Sum 2017–2025
Fleet-average mpg35.148.7
Fuel saved (bil. gal.)4.829.0161.2
Private costs and benefits ($2007 million, costs shown as negative benefit)
Technology implementation−3,539−19,030−108,327
Maintenance−12−1,239−4,947
Pretax fuel savings12,49880,175436,469
Consumer surplus from additional driving1,1937,39140,184
Value of saved refueling time4492,32913,090
 Net private benefits10,58969,627376,469
Social costs and benefits ($2007 million, costs shown as negative benefit)
Congestion (rebound effect)−512−3,126−17,081
Accidents (rebound effect)−236−1,466−8,010
Noise (rebound effect)−10−58−318
Decreased lifespan of EVs0−40−87
Petroleum market externalities6814,08122,643
Vehicle safety changes95418
GHGs1,1958,43344,577
Conventional air pollutants4082,35013,616
 Net social benefits1,53510,22955,357
Net total benefits12,12179,857431,655

Source: DOT, CPI and author calculations.